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Ferritic Stainless Steel
Description of material
X11 is a low Chromium ferritic stainless steel grade. It is extensively used where a corrosion resistance better than that of Carbon steel is required in order to reduce the cost of maintenance and increase the service life, together with an effective reduction of costs.
X11L is used in many indoor or outdoor applications where chloride contamination is low.
X11L has a good resistance to mildly corrosive environments and offers a scaling resistance up to 600°C. In certain aggressive atmospheric conditions it wouldn’t warrant a sufficient staining resistance. Therefore, evaluations should It should be done in cases where aesthetic performance was a primary requirement. Pitting ad crevice corrosion may appear in the case of chloride solutions, however this grade offers a good intergranular corrosion resistance when annealed. It should be noted that this grade, as for every kind of stainless steel, surfaces should be free of contaminant and scale, heat tint, and passivated for optimum resistance to corrosion.
This grade is suitable for cold heading, up-setting and cold forming.
X11L has a machinability typical of all low Ferritic not micro–resulphured grades. Productivity gain depends on the types of machines used, the kind of tools used and their geometry, cutting fluids and the kind of machine operations on the pieces produced. Its structure influences the surface finish (roughness) and the chip morphology. Within certain limits, a little bit harder structure typical of annealing + cold finishing operations (such as cold drawing) offers advantages in some machine operations and better surface roughness.
It should be noted that this grade may produce large grain structures in FZ and HAZ caused by high temperatures of welding with some risk of embrittlement at room and lower temperatures. However, this grade is prone to maintain a less grain coarsening structure when compared to typical high Cr-ferritic stainless steels. In any case, a PWHT restores the ductility in the case of Martensite formation and diffuses back the Chromium into the depleted zones close to grain boundaries restoring its corrosion resistance. PWHT could also be avoided in many cases. To avoid a ductility decrease in the weld, shielding gases such as Hydrogen and Nitrogen must not be used. Argon and Helium are the preferred choices. In any case, all welding procedures should apply and maintain low heat input processes.
X11L has a very good hot plasticity thanks to a wide range of forging temperatures. Avoid overheating and long soaking since this could cause grain growth. The last final steps of forging must be carried out at lower temperature range with a suitable reduction in order to obtain a structure with fine and uniform grains. Large blooms and ingots may require a suitable preheating to avoid cracks and an air cooling after forging. Overheating must always be avoided in order to reduce the risk of internal bursts and a structure with large coarse grains. An annealing after forging should be always be performed in order to restore both corrosion resistance and enhance the ductility.
|EN||X2CrNi12 / X2Cr11|