Copper is added to other alloy elements to obtain an austenitic structure with a reduced hardening factor during cold plastic deformation. Other analytical balance variations can be used based on the cost of the procedures employed for cold deformation, namely warm heading or type and speed of deformation of the machines.

Valbruna Grade W.N. AISI UNS EN BS
AISR 1.4301/1.4307 304/304L S30400/S30403 X5CrNi18-10/X2CrNi18-9 304S15/304S31
AISRU 1.4567 304CU S30430 X3CrNiCu18-9-4 -
AISRU/1 1.4567 - S30430 X3CrNiCu18-9-4 394S17
AISRU/2 - 304CU S30430 - 394S17
AISRUB 1.4560 - - X3CrNiCu19-9-2 -
AISRUH 1.4567 304CU S30430 X3CrNiCu18-9-4 394S17
APMR 1.4401 / 1.4404 316 / 316L S31600 / S31603 X2CrNiMo17-12-2 / X5CrNiMo17-12-2 316S14 / 316S19
APMRU 1.4578 316CU - X3CrNiCuMo17-11-3-2 396S17